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Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis

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Return to the main chytridiomycosis page
Protocol for the detection of chytrid fungus using qPCR

This page last updated in August 2008.

Chytrid EndNote File

Frog GiftsAssuming you've already ordered your 100% organic cotton SAVE THE FROGS! T-shirt (all proceeds of which make pages like this possible), or some other cool frog item from the Gift Center, you're welcome to download the EndNote File for this library (right click link-->save target as, then unzip with WinRar or similar program; then refine search by "chytrid"). Wear a cool t-shirt and support SAVE THE FROGS!, or spend your weekend entering 249 chytridiomycosis papers in to EndNote? The choice is yours!

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Please send me a PDF of any relevant article not listed here, and feel free to link to this page.
Kerry Kriger

2008 (last updated Dec-1-08)

Alemu JB, Cazabon MNE, Dempewolf L, Hailey A, Lehtinen RM, Mannette RP, et al. (2008). Presence of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in populations of the critically endangered frog Mannophryne olmonae in Tobago, West Indies. EcoHealth 5(1):34-39

Andre SE, Parker J, and Briggs CJ (2008). Effect of temperature on host response to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in the mountain yellow-legged frog (Rana muscosa). Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44:716-720.

Bosch J, and Rincon PA (2008). Chytridiomycosis-mediated expansion of Bufo bufo in a montane area of Central Spain: an indirect effect of the disease. Diversity and Distributions 14:637-643.

Bovero S, Sotgiu G, Angelini C, Doglio S, Gazzaniga E, Cunningham AA, et al. (2008). Detection of chytridiomycosis caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the endangered Sardinian newt (Euproctus platycephalus) in southern Sardinia, Italy. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 44:712-715.

Brucker RM, Harris RN, Schwantes CR, Gallaher TN, Flaherty DC, Lam BA, et al. (2008). Amphibian chemical defense: antifungal metabolites of the microsymbiont Janthinobacterium lividum on the salamander Plethodon cinereus. Journal of Chemical Ecology in press.

Cashins SD, Skerratt LF, and Alford RA (2008). Sodium hypochlorite denatures the DNA of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 80:63-67.

Forzan MJ, Gunn H, and Scott P (2008). Chytridiomycosis in an aquarium collection of frogs: diagnosis, treatment, and control. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39:406-411.

Frias-Alvarez P, Vredenburg VT, Familiar-Lopez M, Longcore JE, Gonzalez-Bernal E, Santos-Barrera G, et al. (2008). Chytridiomycosis survey in wild and captive Mexican amphibians. EcoHealth 5(1):18-26.

Garner TWJ, Stephen I, Wombwell E, and Fisher MC (2008). The amphibian trade: bans or best practice? EcoHealth in press.

Gewin V (2008). Riders of a modern-day ark. PLoS Biology 6:18-21.

Greenbaum E, Kusamba C, Aristote MM, and Reed K (2008). Amphibian chytrid fungus infection in Hyperolius (Anura: Hyperoliidae) from eastern Democratic Republic of Congo.  39:70-73.

Kriger KM, and Hero J-M (2008a). Altitudinal distribution of chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection in subtropical Australian frogs. Austral Ecology 33:1022-1032.

Kriger KM, and Hero J-M (2008b). Chytridiomycosis, amphibian extinctions, and lessons for the prevention of future panzootics. EcoHealth in press.

Laurance WF (2008). Global warming and amphibian extinctions in eastern Australia. Austral Ecology 33:1-9.

Lips KR, Diffendorfer J, Mendelson III JR, and Sears MW (2008). Riding the wave: reconciling the roles of disease and climate change in amphibian declines. PLoS Biology 6:441-454.

McLeod DS, Sheridan JA, Jiraungkoorskul W, and Khonsue W (2008). A survey for the chytrid fungus in Thai amphibians. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 56:199-204.

Miller DL, Rajeev S, Brookins M, Cook J, Whittington L, and Baldwin CA (2008). Concurrent infection with ranavirus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, and Aeromonas in a captive anuran colony. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 39:445-449.

Moss AS, Reddy NS, Dortaj IM, and San Francisco MJ (2008). Chemotaxis of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and its response to a variety of attractants. Mycologia 100:1-5.

Muths E, Pilliod DS, and Livo LJ (2008). Distribution and environmental limitations of an amphibian pathogen in the Rocky Mountains, USA. Biological Conservation 141:1484-1492.

Pessier AP (2008). Management of disease as a threat to amphibian conservation. International Zoo Yearbook 42:30-39.

Picco AM, and Collins JP (2008). Amphibian commerce as a likely source of pathogen pollution. Conservation Biology in press.

Pounds JA, and Coloma LA (2008a). Beware the lone killer. Nature Reports 2:57-59.

Reeves MK (2008). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wood frogs (Rana sylvatica) from three national wildlife refuges in Alaska, USA. Herpetological Review 39:68-70.

Rohr JR, Raffela TR, Romansica JM, McCallum H, and Hudson PJ (2008). Evaluating the links between climate, disease spread, and amphibian declines. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences 105:17436-17441.

Rosenblum EB, Stajich JE, Maddox N, and Eisen MB (2008). Global gene expression profiles for life stages of the deadly amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences 105:17034-17039.

Ruiz A, and Rueda-Almonacid JV (2008). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and chytridiomycosis in anuran amphibians of Colombia. EcoHealth 5(1):27-33

Ryan MJ, Lips KR, and Eichholz MW (2008). Decline and extirpation of an endangered Panamanian stream frog population (Craugator punctariolus) due to an outbreak of chytridiomycosis. Biological Conservation 2008:1636-1647.

Skerratt LF, Berger L, Hines HB, McDonald KR, Mendez D, and Speare R (2008). Survey protocol for detecting chytridiomycosis in all Australian frog populations. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 80:85-94.

St-Amour V, Wong WM, Garner TWJ, and Lesbarrères D (2008). Anthropogenic influence on prevalence of 2 amphibian pathogens. Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:1175-1176.

Symonds EP, Trott DJ, Bird PS, and Mills P (2008). Growth characteristics and enzyme activity in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis isolates Mycopathologia 166:143-147.

Van Sluys M, Kriger KM, Phillott AD, Campbell R, Skerratt LF, and Hero J-M (2008). Storage of samples at high temperatures reduces the amount of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) DNA detectable by PCR assay. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 81:93-97.

Walker SF, Bosch J, James TY, Litvintseva AP, Valls JAO, Pina S, et al. (2008). Invasive pathogens threaten species recovery programs. Current Biology 18:R853-R854.

Woodhams DC, Alford RA, Briggs CJ, Johnson M, and Rollins-Smith LA (2008a). Life-history trade-offs influence disease in changing climates: strategies of an amphibian pathogen. Ecology 89:1627-1639.

Woodhams DC, Hyatt AD, Boyle DG, and Rollins-Smith LA (2008b). The northern leopard frog Rana pipiens is a widespread reservoir species harboring Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in North America. Herpetological Review 39:66-68.

Woodhams DC, L. Kilburn VL, Reinert LK, Voyles J, Medina D, Ibanez R, et al. (2008c). Chytridiomycosis and amphibian population declines continue to spread eastward in Panama. EcoHealth in press.




Alford RA, Bradfield KS, and Richards SJ (2007). Global warming and amphibian losses. Nature 447:E3-E4.

Altig R (2007). Comments on the descriptions and evaluations of tadpole mouthpart anomalies. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 2:1-4.

Bosch J, Carrascal LM, Duran L, Walker S, and Fisher MC (2007). Climate change and outbreaks of amphibian chytridiomycosis in a montane area of Central Spain; is there a link? Proceedings of the Royal Society B 274:253-260.

Davidson C, Benard MF, Shaffer HB, Parker JM, O'Leary C, Conlon JM, et al. (2007). Effects of chytrid and carbaryl on survival, growth and skin peptide defenses in foothill yellow-legged frogs. Environmental Science Technology 41:1771-1776.

Di Rosa I, Simoncelli F, Fagotti A, and Pascolini R (2007). The proximate cause of frog declines? Nature 447:E4-E5.

Diaz LM, Cadiz A, Chong A, and Silva A (2007). First report of chytridiomycosis in a dying toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from Cuba: a new conservation challenge for the island. EcoHealth 4:172-175.

Drake DL, Altig R, Grace JB, and Walls SC (2007). Occurence of oral deformities in larval anurans. Copeia:449-458.

Felger J, Enssle J, Mendez D, and Speare R (2007). Chytridiomycosis in El Salvador. Salamandra 43:122-127.

Fisher MC, and Garner TWJ (2007). The relationship between the emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the international trade in amphibians and introduced amphibian species. Fungal Biology Reviews 21:2-9.

Garcia G, Cunningham AA, Horton DL, Garner TWJ, Hyatt AD, Hengstberger S, et al. (2007). Mountain chickens Leptodactylus fallax and sympatric amphibians appear to be disease free on Montserrat. Oryx 41:398-401.

Goldberg TL, Readel AM, and Lee MH (2007). Chytrid fungus in frogs from an equatorial African montane forest in western Uganda. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43:521-524.

Hyatt AD, Boyle DG, Olsen V, Boyle DB, Berger L, Obendorf D, et al. (2007). Diagnostic assays and sampling protocols for the detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 73:175-192.

Kirshtein JD, Anderson CW, Wood JS, Longcore JE, and Voytek MA (2007). Quantitative PCR detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis DNA from sediments and water. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 77:11-15.

Kriger KM, Ashton KJ, Hines HB, and Hero J-M (2007a). On the biological relevance of a single Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis zoospore: a reply to Smith (2007). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 73:257-260.

Kriger KM, and Hero J-M (2007a). The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is non-randomly distributed across amphibian breeding habitats. Diversity and Distributions 13:781-788.

Kriger KM, and Hero J-M (2007b). Large-scale seasonal variation in the prevalence and severity of chytridiomycosis. Journal of Zoology 271:352-359.

Kriger KM, Pereoglou F, and Hero J-M (2007b). Latitudinal variation in the prevalence and intensity of chytrid (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) infection in eastern Australia. Conservation Biology 21:1280-1290.

Lampo M, Barrio-Amoros C, and Han B (2007). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in the recently rediscovered Atelopus mucubajiensis (Anura, Bufonidae), a critically endangered frog from the Venezuelan Andes. EcoHealth 3:299-302.

Longcore JR, Longcore JE, Pessier AP, and Halteman WA (2007). Chytridiomycosis widespread in anurans of northeastern United States. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:435-444.

Malhotra A, Thorpe RS, Hypolite E, and James A (2007). A report on the status of the herpetofauna of the Commonwealth of Dominica, West Indies. . Applied Herpetology 4:177-194.

Mitchell KM, Churcher TS, Garner TWJ, and Fisher MC (2007). Persistence of the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis outside the amphibian host greatly increases the probability of host extinction. Proceedings of the Royal Society B doi:10.1098/rspb.2007.1356.

Morgan JAT, Vredenburg VT, Rachowicz LJ, Knapp R, Stice MJ, Tunstall T, et al. (2007). Population genetics of the frog-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 104:13845-13850.

Muths E, Pilliod DS, and Livo LJ (2008). Distribution and environmental limitations of an amphibian pathogen in the Rocky Mountains, USA. Biological Conservation 141:1484-1492.

Nieto NC, Camann MA, Foley JE, and Reiss JO (2007). Disease associated with integumentary and cloacal parasites in tadpoles of northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 78:61-71.

Norris S (2007). Ghosts in our midst: coming to terms with amphibian extinctions. BioScience 57:311-316.

Padgett-Flohr GE, and Goble ME (2007). Evaluation of tadpole mouthpart depigmentation as a diagnostic test for infection by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis for four California anurans. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43:690-699.

Padgett-Flohr GE, and Longcore JE (2007). Taricha torosa fungal infection. Herpetological Review 38:176-177.

Pearl CA, Bull EL, Green DE, Bowerman J, Adams MJ, Hyatt A, et al. (2007). Occurrence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the Pacific Northwest. Journal of Herpetology 41:145-149.

Peterson JD, Wood MB, Hopkins WA, Unrine JM, and Mendonca MT (2007). Prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in American bullfrog and southern leopard frog larvae from wetlands on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43:450-460.

Pounds JA, Bustamante MR, Coloma LA, Consuegra JA, Fogden MPL, Foster PN, et al. (2007). Pounds et al. reply. Nature 447:E5-E6.

Proaño-Bolaños C, Merino-Viteri A, Peña-Loyola P, and Salazar D (2007). A midlatitude report of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Ecuador. Froglog:2.

Rachowicz LJ, and Briggs CJ (2007). Quantifying the disease transmission function: effects of density on Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis transmission in the mountain yellow-legged frog Rana muscosa. Journal of Animal Ecology 76:711-721.

Retallick RWR, and Miera V (2007). Strain differences in the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and non-permanent, sub-lethal effects of infection. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 75:201-207.

Rowley JJL, and Alford RA (2007). Behaviour of Australian rainforest stream frogs may affect the transmission of chytridiomycosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 77:1-9.

Rowley JJL, Chan SKF, Tang WS, Speare R, Skerratt LF, Alford RA, et al. (2007a). Survey for the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Hong Kong in native amphibians and in the international amphibian trade. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 78:87-95.

Rowley JL, Hemingway VA, Alford RA, Waycott M, Skerratt LF, Campbell R, et al. (2007b). Experimental infection and repeat survey data indicate the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis may not occur on freshwater crustaceans in northern Queensland, Australia. EcoHealth 4:31-36.

Rowley JL, Skeratt LF, Alford RA, and Campbell R (2007c). Retreat sites of rain forest stream frogs are not a reservoir for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in northern Queensland, Australia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 74:7-12.

Schlaepfer MA, Sredl MJ, Rosen PC, and Ryan MJ (2007). High prevalence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild populations of lowland leopard frogs Rana yavapaiensis in Arizona. EcoHealth 4:421-427.

Seimon TA, Seimon A, Daszak P, Halloy SRP, Schloegel LM, Aguilar CA, et al. (2007). Upward range extension of Andean anurans and chytridiomycosis to extreme elevations in response to tropical deglaciation. Global Change Biology 13:288-299.

Skerratt LF, Berger L, Speare R, Cashins S, Mcdonald KR, Phillott AD, et al. (2007). Spread of chytridiomycosis has caused the rapid global decline and extinction of frogs. EcoHealth 4:125-134.

Smith KG (2007). Use of quantitative PCR assay for amphibian chytrid detection: comment on Kriger et al. (2006a,b). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 73:253-255.

Smith KG, Weldon C, Conradie W, and du Preez LH (2007). Relationships among size, development, and Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection in African tadpoles. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 74:159-164.

Symonds EP, Hines HB, Bird PS, Morton JM, and Mills PC (2007). Surveillance for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis using Mixophyes (Anura:Myobatrachidae) larvae. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 43:48-60.

Voyles J, Berger L, Young S, Speare R, Webb R, Warner J, et al. (2007). Electrolyte depletion and osmotic imbalance in amphibians with chytridiomycosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 77:113-118.

Walker SF, Salas MB, Jenkins D, Garner TWJ, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD, et al. (2007). Environmental detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in a temperate climate. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 77:105-112.

Webb R, Mendez D, Berger L, and Speare R (2007). Additional disinfectants effective against the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 74:13-16.

Whitfield SM, Bell KE, Philippi T, Sasa M, Bolanos F, Chaves G, et al. (2007). Amphibian and reptile declines over 35 years at La Selva, Costa Rica. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 10.1073/pnas.0611256104.

Woodhams DC, Vredenburg VT, Simon M-A, Billheimer D, Shakhtour B, Shyr Y, et al. (2007). Symbiotic bacteria contribute to innate immune defenses of the threatened mountain yellow-legged frog, Rana muscosa. Biological Conservation in press:doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2007.1005.1004.

Young S, Berger L, and Speare R (2007). Amphibian chytridiomycosis: strategies for captive management and conservation. Int. Zoo. Yb. 41:1-11.




Barrionuevo S, and Mangione S (2006). Chytridiomycosis in two species of Telmatobius (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Argentina. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 73:171-174.

Blaustein AR, and Dobson A (2006). A message from the frogs. Nature 439:143-144.

Bosch J, and Martinez-Solano I (2006). Chytrid fungus infection related to unusual mortalities of Salamandra salamandra and Bufo bufo in the Penalara Natural Park, Spain. Oryx 40:84-89.

Carey C, Bruzgul JE, Livo LJ, Walling ML, Kuehl KA, Dixon BF, et al. (2006). Experimental exposures of boreal toads (Bufo boreas) to a pathogenic chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). EcoHealth 3:5-21.

Carnaval AOQ, Puschendorf R, Peixoto OL, Vardade VK, and Rodrigues MT (2006). Amphibian chytrid fungus broadly distributed in the Brazilian Atlantic rain forest. EcoHealth 3:41-48.

Drew A, Allen EJ, and Allen LJ (2006). Analysis of climatic and geographic factors affecting the presence of chytridiomycosis in Australia. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 68:245-250.

Fox SF, Greer AL, Torres-Cervantes R, and Collins JP (2006). First case of ranavirus-associated morbidity and mortality in natural populations of the South American frog Atelognathus patagonicus. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72:87-92.

Garcia TS, Romansic JR, and Blaustein AR (2006). Survival of three species of anuran metamorphs exposed to UV-B radiation and the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72:163-169.

Harris RN, James TY, Lauer A, Simon MA, and Patel A (2006). Amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is inhibited by the cutaneous bacteria of amphibian species. EcoHealth 3:53-56.

Knapp RA, and Morgan JAT (2006). Tadpole mouthpart depigmentation as an accurate indicator of chytridiomycosis, an emerging disease of amphibians. COPEIA 2:188-197.

Kriger KM, and Hero J-M (2006a). Cophixalus ornatus (Ornate Nursery Frog). Chytridiomycosis. Herpetological Review 37:443.

Kriger KM, and Hero J-M (2006b). Survivorship in wild frogs infected with chytridiomycosis. EcoHealth 3:171-177.

Kriger KM, Hero J-M, and Ashton KJ (2006a). Cost efficiency in the detection of chytridiomycosis using PCR assay. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 71:149-154.

Kriger KM, Hines H, Hyatt AD, Boyle DG, and Hero J-M (2006b). Techniques for detecting chytridiomycosis in wild frogs: comparing histology with real-time Taqman PCR. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 71:141-148.

Lampo M, Rodríguez-Contreras A, La Marca E, and Daszak P (2006). A chytridiomycosis epidemic and a severe dry season precede the disappearance of Atelopus species from the Venezuelan Andes. Herpetological Journal 16:395-402.

Lampo M, and Senaris CJ (2006). Unexplained amphibian mortalities in the secluded mountains of the Venezuelan Guayana: is there evidence of chytridiomycosis? Herpetological Review 37:47-49.

Lips KR, Brem F, Brenes R, Reeve JD, Alford RA, Voyles J, et al. (2006). Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a neotropical amphibian community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 103:3165-3170.

Parris MJ, Reese E, and Storfer A (2006). Antipredator behavior of chytridiomycosis-infected northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens) tadpoles. Canadian Journal of Zoology 84:58-65.

Puschendorf R, and Bolanos F (2006). Detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Eleutherodactylus fitzingeri: effects of skin sample location and histologic stain. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42:301-306.

Puschendorf R, Bolanos F, and Chaves G (2006a). The amphibian chytrid fungus along an altitudinal transect before the first reported declines in Costa Rica. Biological Conservation 132:136-142.

Puschendorf R, Castaneda F, and McCranie JR (2006b). Chytridiomycosis in wild frogs from Pico Bonito National Park, Honduras. EcoHealth 3:178-181.

Rachowicz LJ, Knapp RA, Morgan JAT, Stice MJ, Vredenburg VT, Parker JM, et al. (2006). Emerging infectious disease as a proximate cause of amphibian mass mortality. Ecology 87:1671-1683.

Retallick RWR, Miera V, Richards KL, Field KJ, and Collins JP (2006). A non-lethal technique for detecting the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis on tadpoles. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72:77-85.

Rowley JL, Alford RA, and Skeratt LF (2006). The amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis occurs on freshwater shrimp in rain forest streams in northern Queensland, Australia. EcoHealth 3:49-52.

Schloegel LM, Hero J-M, Berger L, Speare R, McDonald KR, and Daszak P (2006). The decline of the sharp-snouted day frog (Taudactylus acutirostris): the first documented case of extinction by infection in a free-ranging wildlife species? EcoHealth 3:35-40.

Toledo LF, Britto FB, Araujo OGS, Giasson LMO, and Haddad CFB (2006a). The occurence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Brazil and the inclusion of 17 new cases of infection. South American Journal of Herpetology 1:185-191.

Toledo LF, Haddad CFB, Carnaval ACOQ, and Britto FB (2006b). A Brazilian anuran (Hylodes magalhaesi: Leptodactylidae) infected by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis: a conservation concern. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 4:17-21.

Weldon C, and du Preez LH (2006). Quantitative measurement of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibian skin. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 72:153-161.

White AW (2006). A trial using salt to protect green and golden bell frogs from chytrid infection. Herpetofauna 36:93-96.

Woodhams DC, Voyles J, Lips KR, Carey C, and Rollins-Smith LA (2006). Predicted disease susceptibility in a Panamanian amphibian assemblage based on skin peptide defenses. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 42:207-218.

Yu YH, Zhang SC, Zhao YJ, Shi J, Yu LH, and Lu QF (2006). Chytridiomycosis and global amphibian declines. Chinese Journal of Zoology 41:118-122.




Beard KH, and O'Neill EM (2005). Infection of an invasive frog Eleutherodactylus coqui by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Hawaii. Biological Conservation 126:591-595.

Berger L, Hyatt AD, Speare R, and Longcore JE (2005a). Life cycle stages of the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 68:51-63.

Berger L, Marantelli G, Skeratt LF, and Speare R (2005b). Virulence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis varies with the strain. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 68:47-50.

Berger L, Speare R, and Skeratt LF (2005c). Distribution of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and pathology in the skin of green tree frogs Litoria caerulea with severe chytridiomycosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 68:65-70.

Blaustein AR, Romansic JR, Scheessele EA, Han BA, Pessier AP, and Longcore JE (2005). Interspecific variation in susceptibility of frog tadpoles to the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Conservation Biology 19:1460-1468.

Briggs CJ, Vredenburg VT, Knapp R, and Rachowicz LJ (2005). Investigating the population-level effects of chytridiomycosis: an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. Ecology 86:3149-3159.

Burgin S, Schell CB, and Briggs C (2005). Is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis really the proximate cause of frog decline? Acta Zoologica Sinica 51:344-348.

Bustamante MR, Ron SR, and Coloma LA (2005). Cambios en la diversidad en siete comunidades de anuros en los Andes de Ecuador. Biotropica 37:180-189.

Carnaval AOQ, Toledo LF, Haddad CFB, and Britto FB (2005). Chytrid fungus infects high-altitude stream-dwelling Hylodes magalhaesi (Leptodactylidae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. Froglog 70:3-4.

Cummer MR, Green DE, and O'Neill EM (2005). Aquatic chytrid pathogen detected in terrestrial plethodontid salamander. Herpetological Review 36:248-249.

Cunningham AA, Garner TWJ, Aguilar-Sanchez V, Banks B, Foster J, Sainsbury AW, et al. (2005). Emergence of amphibian chytridiomycosis in Britain. The Veterinary Record 157:386-387.

Daszak P, Scott DE, Faggioni C, Kilpatrick AM, Gibbons JW, and Porter D (2005). Amphibian population declines at Savannah River site are linked to climate, not chytridiomycosis. Ecology 86:3532-3537.

DEH (2005a). Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis. Department of Environment and Heritage, Canberra.

DEH (2005b). Threat Abatement Plan for infection of amphibians with chytrid fungus resulting in chytridiomycosis: Background document. Department of Environment and Heritage, Canberra.

Garner TWJ, Walker S, Bosch J, Hyatt AD, Cunningham AA, and Fisher MC (2005). Chytrid fungus in Europe. Emerging Infectious Diseases 11:1639-1641.

Green DE, and Muths E (2005). Health evaluation of amphibians in and near Rocky Mountain National Park (Colorado, USA). Alytes 22:109-129.

Herrera RA, Steciow MM, and Natale GS (2005). Chytrid fungus parasitizing the wild amphibian Leptodactylus ocellatus (Anura: Leptodactylidae) in Argentina. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 64:247-252.

Johnson M, and Speare R (2005). Possible modes of dissemination of the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the environment. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 65:181-186.

La Marca E, Lips KR, Lotters S, Puschendorf R, Ibanez R, Rueda-Almonacid JV, et al. (2005). Catastrophic population declines and extinctions in neotropical Harlequin frogs (Bufonidae: Atelopus). Biotropica 37:190-201.

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